Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men in the present and how is this difference growing in the past? There is only limited evidence and زيوت تطويل الشعر the evidence is not strong enough to make an absolute conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological as well as environmental factors that play an integral role in the longevity of women over males, it isn't clear how much each one contributes.

It is known that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. But this is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

imageEverywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can expect to live longer than her younger brother.

This chart illustrates that, although women have an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences are often significant. In Russia, women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of just half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was smaller in developed countries than it is now.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US in the years 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small however, it has grown significantly with time.

You can check if the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.

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